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Mindfulness

The Foundations of Mindfulness (Mahasatipatthana Sutta)


1. Thus have I heard. Once the Lord was staying among the Kurus.
There is a market-town of theirs called Kammasadhamma.
And there the Lord addressed the monks : “Monks !”
“Lord”, they replied, and the Lord said :
“There is, monks, this one way

  • for the purification of beings,
  • for the overcoming of sorrow and distress,
  • for the disappearance of pain and sadness,
  • for the gaining of the right path,
  • for the realisation of Nibanna.

That is to say the four foundations of mindfulness.

What are the four ?

  • Here, monks, a monk abides contemplating body as body, ardent, clearly aware and mindful, having put aside hankering and fretting for the world.
  • He abides contemplating feelings as feelings, ardent, clearly aware and mindful, having put aside hankering and fretting for the world.
  • He abides contemplating mind as mind, ardent, clearly aware and mindful, having put aside hankering and fretting for the world.
  • He abides contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects, ardent, clearly aware and mindful, having put aside hankering and fretting for the world.

Contemplation of the Body
(a. Mindfulness of Breathing)

2. “And how, monks, does a monk abide contemplating the body as body ?

Here a monk,
having gone into the forest, or
to the root of a tree, or
to an empty place,

sits down cross-legged,
holding his body erect,
having established mindfulness before him.

  • Mindfully he breathes in,
    Mindfully he breathes out.
  • Breathing in a long breath,
    he knows that he breathes in long breath, and
  • Breathing out a long breath,
    he knows that he breathes out long breath
  • Breathing in a short breath,
    he knows that he breathes in short breath.
  • Breathing out a short breath,
    he knows that he breathes out short breath.
  • He trains himself, thinking :
    “I will breathe in, conscious of the whole body.”
  • He trains himself, thinking :
    “I will breathe out, conscious of the whole body.”
  • He trains himself, thinking :
    “I will breathe in, calming the whole bodily process.”
  • He trains himself, thinking :
    “I will breathe out, calming the whole bodily process.”

Just as a skill turner, or his assistant,
in making a long turn, knows that he is making a long turn,
or in making a short turn, knows that he is making a short turn.

so too a monk,
in breathing in a long breath, knows that he breathes in a long breath
or in breathing out short breath, knows he breathes out short breath.
so trains himself, thinking
“I will breathe out, calming the whole bodily process.”

(Insight)

“So he abides contemplating body as body internally,
contemplating body as body externally,
contemplating body as body both internally and externally.

He abides contemplating arising phenomena in the body,
He abides contemplating vanishing phenomena in the body
He abides contemplating both arising and vanishing phenomena in the body

Or else, mindfulness that “there is a body” is present to him
just to the extent necessary for the knowledge and awareness.
And he abides independent, not clinging to anything in the world.
And that, monks, is how a monk abides contemplating body as body.”

(b. The Four Postures)

3. “Again, a monk,

  • when walking, he knows that he is walking,
  • when standing, he knows that he is standing,
  • when sitting, he knows that he is sitting,
  • when lying down, he knows that he is lying down.

In whatever way his body is disposed, he knows that that is how it is.

(Insight)

“So he abides contemplating body as body internally,
contemplating body as body externally,
contemplating body as body both internally and externally.

He abides contemplating arising phenomena in the body,
He abides contemplating vanishing phenomena in the body
He abides contemplating both arising and vanishing phenomena in the body

Or else, mindfulness that “there is a body” is present to him
just to the extent necessary for the knowledge and awareness.
And he abides independent, not clinging to anything in the world.
And that, monks, is how a monk abides contemplating body as body.”

(c. Clear Awareness)

4. “Again, a monk,

  • when going forward or backwards,

he is clearly aware of what he is doing,

  • in looking forward or backwards,

he is clearly aware of what he is doing,

  • in bending or stretching,

he is clearly aware of what he is doing,

  • in carrying his inner and outer robe and his bowl,

he is clearly aware of what he is doing,

  • in eating, drinking, chewing and savouring ,

he is clearly aware of what he is doing,

  • in passing excrement or urine,

he is clearly aware of what he is doing,

  • in walking, standing, sitting, falling asleep and waking up, in speaking or in staying silent,

he is clearly aware of what he is doing.

(Insight)

“So he abides contemplating body as body internally,
contemplating body as body externally,
contemplating body as body both internally and externally.

He abides contemplating arising phenomena in the body,
He abides contemplating vanishing phenomena in the body
He abides contemplating both arising and vanishing phenomena in the body

Or else, mindfulness that “there is a body” is present to him
just to the extent necessary for the knowledge and awareness.
And he abides independent, not clinging to anything in the world.
And that, monks, is how a monk abides contemplating body as body.”

(d. Reflection on the Repulsive : Parts of the Body)

5. “Again, a monk reviews this very body
from the soles of the feet upwards and from the scalp downwards,
enclosed by the skin and full of manifold impurities:

“In this body, there are head-hair, body-hair, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, sinews, bones, bone-marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs, mesentery, bowels, stomach, excrement, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fats, tears, tallow, saliva, snot, synovic fluid, urine.”

Just as if there were a bag, open at both ends, full of various kinds of grain such as hill-rice, paddy, green gram, kidney-beans, sesame, husked rice and a man with good eyesight were to open the bag and examine them, saying :

“This is hill-rice, this is paddy, this is green gram,
these are kidney-beans, this is sesame, this is husked rice.”

So too a monk reviews this very body :
“In this body, there are head-hair, body-hair, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, sinews, bones, bone-marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs, mesentery, bowels, stomach, excrement, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fats, tears, tallow, saliva, snot, synovic fluid, urine.”

(Insight)

“So he abides contemplating body as body internally,
contemplating body as body externally,
contemplating body as body both internally and externally.

He abides contemplating arising phenomena in the body,
He abides contemplating vanishing phenomena in the body
He abides contemplating both arising and vanishing phenomena in the body

Or else, mindfulness that “there is a body” is present to him
just to the extent necessary for the knowledge and awareness.
And he abides independent, not clinging to anything in the world.
And that, monks, is how a monk abides contemplating body as body.”

(e. The Four Elements)

6. “Again, a monk reviews this body, however it may be placed or disposed, in terms of the elements:

“There are in this body

  • the earth-element
  • the water-element
  • the fire-element
  • the air-element

Just as if a skilled butcher or his assistant, having slaughtered a cow, were to sit at a cross roads with the carcass divided into portions, so a monk reviews this very body, however it may be placed or disposed, in terms of the elements :

“There are in this body

  • the earth-element
  • the water-element
  • the fire-element
  • the air-element

(Insight)

“So he abides contemplating body as body internally,
contemplating body as body externally,
contemplating body as body both internally and externally.

He abides contemplating arising phenomena in the body,
He abides contemplating vanishing phenomena in the body
He abides contemplating both arising and vanishing phenomena in the body

Or else, mindfulness that “there is a body” is present to him
just to the extent necessary for the knowledge and awareness.
And he abides independent, not clinging to anything in the world.
And that, monks, is how a monk abides contemplating body as body.”

(f. The Nine Charnel-Ground Contemplations)

7. “Again, a monk, as if were to see a corpse thrown in a charnel-ground,
one, two or three days dead, bloated, discoloured, festering,
compares this body with that, thinking ;
“This body is of the same nature, it will become like that,
it is not exempt from the fate.”

(Insight)

“So he abides contemplating body as body internally,
contemplating body as body externally,
contemplating body as body both internally and externally.

He abides contemplating arising phenomena in the body,
He abides contemplating vanishing phenomena in the body
He abides contemplating both arising and vanishing phenomena in the body

Or else, mindfulness that “there is a body” is present to him
just to the extent necessary for the knowledge and awareness.
And he abides independent, not clinging to anything in the world.
And that, monks, is how a monk abides contemplating body as body.”

8. “Again, a monk, as if he were to see a corpse in a charnel-ground, thrown aside, eaten by crows, hawks or vultures, by dogs or jackals, or various other creatures,
compares this body with that, thinking :
“This body is of the same nature, it will become like that,
it is not exempt from that fate.”

9. “Again, a monk, as if he were to see a corpse in a charnel-ground, thrown aside,
a skeleton with the flesh and blood, connected by sinews
compares this body with that, thinking :
“This body is of the same nature, it will become like that,
it is not exempt from that fate.”

a fleshless skeleton smeared with blood, connected by sinews,
compares this body with that, thinking :
“This body is of the same nature, it will become like that,
it is not exempt from that fate.”

skeleton detached from flesh and blood, connected by sinews,
compares this body with that, thinking :
“This body is of the same nature, it will become like that,
it is not exempt from that fate.”

randomly connected bones, scattered in all directions, a hand-bone here,
a foot-bone there, a shin-bone here, a thigh-bone there, a hip-bone-bone here,
a spine there, a skull there, compares this body with that, thinking :
“This body is of the same nature, it will become like that,
it is not exempt from that fate.”

10. “Again, a monk, as if he were to see a corpse in a charnel-ground, thrown aside, the bones whitened, looking like shells,
compares this body with that, thinking :
“This body is of the same nature, it will become like that,
it is not exempt from that fate.”

the bones piled up, a year old, compares this body with that, thinking :
“This body is of the same nature, it will become like that,
it is not exempt from that fate.”

the bones rotted away to a powder, compares this body with that, thinking :
“This body is of the same nature, it will become like that,
it is not exempt from that fate.”

(Insight)

“So he abides contemplating body as body internally,
contemplating body as body externally,
contemplating body as body both internally and externally.

He abides contemplating arising phenomena in the body,
He abides contemplating vanishing phenomena in the body
He abides contemplating both arising and vanishing phenomena in the body

Or else, mindfulness that “there is a body” is present to him
just to the extent necessary for the knowledge and awareness.
And he abides independent, not clinging to anything in the world.
And that, monks, is how a monk abides contemplating body as body.”

Contemplation of Feelings

11. And how, monks, does a monk abide contemplating feelings as feelings ?

Here, a monk

feeling a pleasant feeling
knows that he feels a pleasant feeling ;

feeling a painful feeling
knows that he feels a painful feeling ;

feeling a feeling that is neither-painful-nor-pleasant
knows that he feels a feeling that is neither-painful-nor-pleasant;

feeling a pleasant sensual feeling
knows that he feels a pleasant sensual feeling;

feeling a pleasant non-sensual feeling
knows that he feels a pleasant non-sensual feeling;

feeling a painful sensual feeling
knows that he feels a painful sensual feeling;

feeling a painful non-sensual feeling
knows that he feels a painful non-sensual feeling;

feeling a sensual feeling that is neither-painful-nor-pleasant
knows that he feel a sensual feeling that is neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling;

feeling a non-sensual feeling that is neither-painful-nor-pleasant
knows that he feels a non-sensual feeling that is neither-painful-nor-pleasant.

(Insight)

“So he abides contemplating feelings as feelings internally,
contemplating feelings as feelings externally,
contemplating feelings as feelings both internally and externally.

He abides contemplating arising phenomena in the feelings,
He abides contemplating vanishing phenomena in the feelings
He abides contemplating both arising and vanishing phenomena in the feelings

Or else, mindfulness that “there is a feeling” is present to him
just to the extent necessary for the knowledge and awareness.
And he abides independent, not clinging to anything in the world.
And that, monks, is how a monk abides contemplating feelings as feelings.”

Contemplation Of Mind

12. “And how, monks, does a monk abides contemplating mind as mind?

Here, a monk knows

a lustful mind as lustful,
a mind free from lust as free from lust;

a hating mind as hating,
a mind free from hate as free from hate;

a deluded mind as deluded,
an undeluded mind as undeluded;

a contracted mind as contracted,
a distracted mind as distracted;

a developed mind as developed,
an undeveloped mind as undeveloped;

a surpassed mind as surpassed,
an unsurpassed mind as unsurpassed;

a concentrated mind as concentrated,
an unconcentrated mind as unconcentrated;

a liberated mind as liberated,
an unliberated mind as unliberated.

(Insight)

“So he abides contemplating mind as mind internally,
contemplating mind as mind externally,
contemplating mind as mind both internally and externally.

He abides contemplating arising phenomena in the mind,
He abides contemplating vanishing phenomena in the mind
He abides contemplating both arising and vanishing phenomena in the mind

Or else, mindfulness that “there is a mind” is present to him
just to the extent necessary for the knowledge and awareness.
And he abides independent, not clinging to anything in the world.
And that, monks, is how a monk abides contemplating mind as mind.”

Contemplation Of Mind-Objects

(a. The Five Hindrances)

13. “And how, monks, does a monk abides
contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects?”

Here, a monk abides contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects
in respect of the five hindrances.”

How does he do so ?

Here, monks,

If sensual desire is present in himself, a monk knows that it is present.
If sensual desire is absent in himself, a monk knows that it is absent.
And he knows how unarisen sensual desire comes to arise,
and he knows how the abandonment of arisen sensual desire comes about,
and he knows how the non-arising of the abandoned sensual desire in the future will come about.

If ill-will is present in himself, a monk knows that it is present.
If ill-will is absent in himself, a monk knows that it is absent.
And he knows how unarisen sensual desire comes to arise,
and he knows how the abandonment of arisen sensual desire comes about,
and he knows how the non-arising of the abandoned sensual desire in the future will come about.

If sloth-and-torpor is present in himself, a monk knows that it is present.
If sloth-and-torpor is absent in himself, a monk knows that it is absent.
And he knows how unarisen sensual desire comes to arise,
and he knows how the abandonment of arisen sensual desire comes about,
and he knows how the non-arising of the abandoned sensual desire in the future will come about.

If worry-and-restlessness is present in himself, a monk knows that it is present.
If worry-and-restlessness is absent in himself, a monk knows that it is absent.
And he knows how unarisen sensual desire comes to arise,
and he knows how the abandonment of arisen sensual desire comes about,
and he knows how the non-arising of the abandoned sensual desire in the future will come about.

If doubt is present in himself, a monk knows that it is present.
If doubt is absent in himself, a monk knows that it is absent.
And he knows how unarisen sensual desire comes to arise,
and he knows how the abandonment of arisen sensual desire comes about,
and he knows how the non-arising of the abandoned sensual desire in the future will come about.

(Insight)

“So he abides contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects internally,
contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects externally,
contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects both internally and externally.

He abides contemplating arising phenomena in the mind-objects,
He abides contemplating vanishing phenomena in the mind-objects
He abides contemplating both arising and vanishing phenomena in the mind-objects

Or else, mindfulness that “there is a mind-objects” is present to him
just to the extent necessary for the knowledge and awareness.
And he abides independent, not clinging to anything in the world.
And that, monks, is how a monk abides contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects in the respect of the five hindrances.”

(b. The Five Aggregates)

14. “Again, monks, a monk abides contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects
in respect of the five aggregates of grasping”

How does he do so?

Here, a monk thinks :

“Such is form,
such the arising of form, such the disappearance of form;

such is feeling,
such the arising of feeling, such the disappearance of feeling;

such is perception,
such the arising of perception, such the disappearance of perception;

such is mental formations,
such the arising of mental formations, such the disappearance of mental formations;

such is consciousness,
such the arising of consciousness, such the disappearance of consciousness.”

(Insight)

“So he abides contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects internally,
contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects externally,
contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects both internally and externally.

He abides contemplating arising phenomena in the mind-objects,
He abides contemplating vanishing phenomena in the mind-objects
He abides contemplating both arising and vanishing phenomena in the mind-objects

And he abides detached, not grasping at anything in the world.
And that, monks, is how a monk abides contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects
in the respect of the five aggregates of grasping.”

(c. The Six Internal and External Sense-Bases)

15. “Again, monks, a monk abides contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects
in respect of the six internal and external sense-bases”

How does he do so?

Here a monk,
knows the eye, knows sight-objects,
and he knows whatever fetter arises dependent on the two.
And he knows how an unarisen fetter comes to arise,
and he knows how the abandonment of an arisen fetter comes about,
knows how the non-arising of the abandoned fetter in the future will come about.

He knows the ear and knows sounds,nd
and he knows whatever fetter arises dependent on the two.
And he knows how an unarisen fetter comes to arise,
and he knows how the abandonment of an arisen fetter comes about,
knows how the non-arising of the abandoned fetter in the future will come about.

He knows the nose and knows smells,
and he knows whatever fetter arises dependent on the two.
And he knows how an unarisen fetter comes to arise,
and he knows how the abandonment of an arisen fetter comes about,
knows how the non-arising of the abandoned fetter in the future will come about.

He knows the tongue and knows tastes,
and he knows whatever fetter arises dependent on the two.
And he knows how an unarisen fetter comes to arise,
and he knows how the abandonment of an arisen fetter comes about,
knows how the non-arising of the abandoned fetter in the future will come about.

He knows the body and knows tangibles,
and he knows whatever fetter arises dependent on the two.
And he knows how an unarisen fetter comes to arise,
and he knows how the abandonment of an arisen fetter comes about,
knows how the non-arising of the abandoned fetter in the future will come about.

He knows the mind and knows mind-objects,
and he knows whatever fetter arises dependent on the two.
And he knows how an unarisen fetter comes to arise,
and he knows how the abandonment of an arisen fetter comes about,
knows how the non-arising of the abandoned fetter in the future will come about.

(Insight)

“So he abides contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects internally,
contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects externally,
contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects both internally and externally.

He abides contemplating arising phenomena in the mind-objects,
He abides contemplating vanishing phenomena in the mind-objects
He abides contemplating both arising and vanishing phenomena in the mind-objects

And he abides detached, not grasping at anything in the world.
And that, monks, is how a monk abides contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects
in the respect of the six internal and external sense-bases.”

(d. The Seven Factors of Enlightenment)

16. “Again, monks, a monk abides contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects
in respect of the seven factors of enlightenment.”

How does he do so?

Here, monks,
if the enlightenment-factor of mindfulness is present in himself,
a monk knows that it is present.
if the enlightenment-factor of mindfulness is absent in himself,
a monk knows that it is absent.
And he knows how the unarisen of the enlightenment-factor of mindfulness
comes to arise,
and he knows how the complete development of
the enlightenment-factor of mindfulness comes about.

If the enlightenment-factor of investigation-of-state is present in himself,
a monk knows that it is present.
if the enlightenment-factor of investigation-of-state is absent in himself,
a monk knows that it is absent.
And he knows how the unarisen of the enlightenment-factor of investigation-of-state comes to arise,
and he knows how the complete development of
the enlightenment-factor of investigation-of-state comes about.

If the enlightenment-factor of energy is present in himself,
a monk knows that it is present.
if the enlightenment-factor of energy is absent in himself,
a monk knows that it is absent.
And he knows how the unarisen of the enlightenment-factor of energy
comes to arise,
and he knows how the complete development of
the enlightenment-factor of energy comes about.

If the enlightenment-factor of delight is present in himself,
a monk knows that it is present.
if the enlightenment-factor of delight is absent in himself,
a monk knows that it is absent.
And he knows how the unarisen enlightenment-factor of delight
comes to arise,
and he knows how the complete development of
the enlightenment-factor of delight comes about.

If the enlightenment-factor of tranquillity is present in himself,
a monk knows that it is present.
if the enlightenment-factor of tranquillity is absent in himself,
a monk knows that it is absent.
And he knows how the unarisen enlightenment-factor of tranquillity
comes to arise,
and he knows how the complete development of
the enlightenment-factor of tranquillity comes about.

If the enlightenment-factor of concentration is present in himself,
a monk knows that it is present.
if the enlightenment-factor of concentration is absent in himself,
a monk knows that it is absent.
And he knows how the unarisen enlightenment-factor of concentration
comes to arise,
and he knows how the complete development of
the enlightenment-factor of concentration comes about.

If the enlightenment-factor of equanimity is present in himself,
a monk knows that it is present.
If the enlightenment-factor of equanimity is absent in himself,
a monk knows that it is absent.
And he knows how the unarisen enlightenment-factor of equanimity
comes to arise,
and he knows how the complete development of
the enlightenment-factor of equanimity comes about.”

(Insight)

“So he abides contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects internally,
contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects externally,
contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects both internally and externally.

He abides contemplating arising phenomena in the mind-objects,
He abides contemplating vanishing phenomena in the mind-objects
He abides contemplating both arising and vanishing phenomena in the mind-objects

And he abides detached, not grasping at anything in the world.
And that, monks, is how a monk abides contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects
in the respect of the seven factors of enlightenment.”

(e. The Four Noble Truths)

17.”Again, monks, a monk abides contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects
in respect of the Four Noble Truths.

How does he do so?

Here, a monk knows as it really is : “This is suffering” ;
He knows as it really is : “This is the origin of suffering” ;
He knows as it really is : “This is the cessation of suffering” ;
He knows as it really is : “This is the way of practice leading to the cessation of suffering.”

18. And what, monks, is the Noble Truth of Suffering ?

Birth is suffering,
Aging is suffering,
Death is suffering,
Sorrow, lamentation, pain, sadness and distress are suffering,
Being attached to the unloved is suffering,
Being separated from the loved is suffering,
Not getting what one wants is suffering.

In short, the five aggregates of grasping are suffering.

“And what, monks, is birth ?
In whatever beings, of whatever groups of beings,
there is birth, coming-to-be, coming forth,
the appearance of the aggregates,
the acquisition of the sense-bases,
that, monks, is called birth.

“And what is aging ?
In whatever beings, of whatever group of beings,
there is aging, decrepitude, broken teeth,
grey hair, wrinkled skin, shrinking with age, decay of the sense-faculties,
that, monks, is called aging.

“And what is death ?
In whatever beings, of whatever group of beings,
there is passing away, a removal,
a cutting-off of the aggregates, a discarding of the body,
that, monks, is called death.

“And what is sorrow ?
Whenever, by any kind of misfortune,
anyone is affected by something of a painful nature,
sorrow, mourning, distress,
inward grief, inward woe,
that, monks, is called sorrow.

“And what is lamentation ?
Whenever, by any kind of misfortune,
anyone is affected by something of a painful nature and
there is crying out, lamenting,
making much noise for grief,
making great lamentation,
that, monk, is called lamentation.

“And what is pain ?
Whatever bodily painful feeling,
bodily unpleasant feeling,
painful or unpleasant feelings results from bodily contact,
that, monks, is called pain.

“And what is sadness ?
Whatever, mental painful feeling,
mental unpleasant feeling,
painful or unpleasant sensation results from mental contact,
that, monks, is called sadness.

“And what is distress ?
Whenever, by anything kind of misfortune,
anybody is affected by something of a painful nature,
distress, great distress,
affliction with distress
with great distress,
that, monks, is called distress.

“And what, monks, is being attached to the unloved ?
Here, whoever has unwanted,
disliked, unpleasant sight-objects, sounds, smells,
tastes, tangibles or mind-objects, or
whoever encounters ill-wishers,
wishers of harm, of discomfort, of insecurity,
with whom they have concourse, intercourse, connection, union,
that, monks, is called being attached to the unloved.

“And what, monks, is being is separated from the loved ?
Here, whoever has what is wanted,
liked, pleasant sight-objects, sounds, smells,
tastes, tangibles or mind-objects, or
whoever encounters well-wishers,
wishers of good, of comfort, of security,
like mother or father or brother or sister or
younger kinsmen of friends or colleagues or blood-relations,
and then is deprived of such concourse, intercourse, connection, or union,
that, monks, is called being separated from the loved.

“And what is not getting what one wants?
In beings subject to birth, monks, this wish arises :
“Oh, that we were not subject to birth, that we might not come to birth!”
But this cannot be gained by wishing. That is not getting what one wants.
In beings subject to aging, to disease, to death, to sorrow, lamentation,
pain, sadness and distress, this wish arises :
“Oh that were not subject to aging … distress, that we might not come to see these things!”
But this cannot be gained by wishing. That’s not getting what ones wants.”

“And how, monks, in short, are the five aggregates of grasping suffering?
They are as follows:
The aggregate of grasping that is form,
The aggregate of grasping that is feeling,
The aggregate of grasping that is perception,
The aggregate of grasping that is mental formations,
The aggregate of grasping that is consciousness,
These are, in short, the five aggregates of grasping are suffering.

And that, monks, is called the Noble Truth of Suffering.

19. “And what, monks, is the Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering ?

It is the craving
which gives rise to rebirth, bound up with pleasure and lust,
finding fresh delight now here, now there :

that is to say
sensual craving,
craving for existence, and
craving for non-existence.

“And where does this craving arise and establish itself?
Whenever in the world there is anything agreeable and pleasurable,
there this craving arises and establishes itself.”

“And what is there in the world that is agreeable and pleasurable?
The eye in the world is agreeable and pleasurable,
the ear in the world is agreeable and pleasurable,
the nose in the world is agreeable and pleasurable,
the tongue in the world is agreeable and pleasurable,
the body in the world is agreeable and pleasurable,
the mind in the world is agreeable and pleasurable ,
And there is this craving arises and establishes itself.”

Sights, sounds, smells, tastes, tangibles, mind-objects
in the world is agreeable and pleasurable.
And there is this craving arises and establishes itself.”

Eye-consciousness, ear-consciousness, nose-consciousness,
tongue-consciousness, body-consciousness, mind-consciousness

in the world is agreeable and pleasurable.
And there is craving arises and establishes itself.”

Eye-contact, ear-contact, nose-contact, tongue-contact, body-contact, mind-contact
in the world is agreeable and pleasurable.
And there is craving arises and establishes itself.”

Feeling born of eye-contact, ear-contact, nose-contact,
tongue-contact, body-contact, mind-contact
,
in the world is agreeable and pleasurable.
And there is craving arises and establishes itself.”

The perception of sights, of sounds, of smells, of tastes, of tangibles, of mind-objects
in the world is agreeable and pleasurable.
And there is this craving arises and establishes itself.”

Volition in regard to sights, sounds, smells, tastes, tangibles, mind-objects
in the world is agreeable and pleasurable.
And there is this craving arises and establishes itself.”

The craving in regard to sights, sounds, smells, tastes, tangibles, mind-objects
in the world is agreeable and pleasurable.
And there is this craving arises and establishes itself.”

Thinking of sights, sounds, smells, tastes, tangibles, mind-objects
in the world is agreeable and pleasurable.
And there is this craving arises and establishes itself.”

Pondering of sights, sounds, smells, tastes, tangibles, mind-objects
in the world is agreeable and pleasurable.
And there is this craving arises and establishes itself.”

And that monks, is called the Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering.

20. “And what, monks, is the Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering ?

It is the complete fading-away and
extinction of this craving,
its forsaking and abandonment,
liberation from it,
detachment from it.

And how does this craving come to be abandoned,
how does its cessation come about?

“Wherever in the world there is anything that is agreeable and pleasurable,
there its cessation comes about.

And what is there in the world that is agreeable and pleasurable ?

The eye, the ear, the nose, the tongue, the body, the mind
in the world is agreeable and pleasurable ,
and there is this craving comes to be abandoned, there its cessation comes about.”

Eye-consciousness, ear-consciousness, nose-consciousnesss,
tongue-consciousness, body-consciousness, mind-consciousnesss

in the world is agreeable and pleasurable.
and there is this craving comes to be abandoned, there its cessation comes about.”

Sights, sounds, smells, tastes, tangibles, mind-objects
in the world is agreeable and pleasurable.
and there is this craving comes to be abandoned, there its cessation comes about.”

Eye-contact, ear-contact, nose-contact, tongue-contact, body-contact, mind-contact
in the world is agreeable and pleasurable.
and there is this craving comes to be abandoned, there its cessation comes about.”

The perception of sights, of sounds, of smells, of tastes, of tangibles, of mind-objects
in the world is agreeable and pleasurable.
and there is this craving comes to be abandoned, there its cessation comes about.”

Volition in regard to sights, sounds, smells, tastes, tangibles, mind-objects
in the world is agreeable and pleasurable.
and there is this craving comes to be abandoned, there its cessation comes about.”

Craving in regard to sights, sounds, smells, tastes, tangibles, mind-objects
in the world is agreeable and pleasurable.
and there is this craving comes to be abandoned, there its cessation comes about.”

Thinking in regard to sights, sounds, smells, tastes, tangibles, mind-objects
in the world is agreeable and pleasurable.
and there is this craving comes to be abandoned, there its cessation comes about.”

Pondering in regard to sights, sounds, smells, tastes, tangibles, mind-objects
in the world is agreeable and pleasurable,
and there is this craving comes to an end, there its cessation comes about.”

And that, monks, is called the Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering.

21. “And what, monks, is the Noble Truth of the
Way of Practice Leading to the Cessation of Suffering ?

It is just this Noble Eightfold Path, namely : –
Right View, Right Thought,
Right Speech, Right Action, Right Livelihood,
Right Effort, Right Mindfulness, Right Concentration
.

“And what, monks, is Right View?
It is, monks,
the knowledge of suffering,
the knowledge of the origin of suffering,
the knowledge of the cessation of suffering, and
the knowledge of the way of practice leading to the cessation of suffering.
This is called the Right View.

“And what, monks, is Right Thought?
the thought of renunciation,
the thought of non-ill-will,
the thought of harmlessness.
This, monks, is called the Right Thought.

“And what, monks, is Right Speech?
Refraining from lying,
Refraining from slandering,
Refraining from harsh speech,
Refraining from frivolous speech.
This is called the Right Speech.

“And what, monks, is Right Action?
Refraining from taking life,
Refraining from taking what is not given,
Refraining from sexual misconduct,
This is called the Right Action.

“And what, monks, is Right Livelihood?
Here, monks, the Ariyan disciple,
having given up the wrong livelihood,
Keeps himself by the right livelihood.
This is called the Right Livelihood.

“And what, monks, is Right Effort?
Here, monks, a monk,
arouses his will, makes an effort, stirs up energy, exerts his mind and
strives to prevent the arising of unarisen evil unwholesome mental states.

He arouses his will, makes an effort, stirs up energy, exerts his mind and
strives to overcome evil unwholesome mental states that have arisen.

He arouses his will, makes an effort, stirs up energy, exerts his mind and
strives to produce unarisen mental states.

He rouses his will, makes an effort, stirs up energy, exerts his mind and
strives to maintain wholesome mental states that have arisen,
not let them fade away,
to bring them to greater growth,
to the full perfection of development.
This is called the Right Effort.

“And what, monks, is Right Mindfulness?
Here, monks, a monk abides
contemplating body as body, ardent, clearly aware and mindful,
having put aside hankering and fretting for the world.

He abides contemplating feelings as feelings ardent, clearly aware and mindful,
having put aside hankering and fretting for the world.

He abides contemplating mind as mind, ardent, clearly aware and mindful,
having put aside hankering and fretting for the world.

He abides contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects, ardent, clearly aware and mindful,
having put aside hankering and fretting for the world.
This is called Right Mindfulness.

“And what, monks, is Right Concentration?
Here, a monk, detached from sense-desires,
detached from unwholesome mental states,
enters and remains in the First Jhana,
which is with thinking and pondering (initial application and sustained application),
born of detachment, filled with delight and joy.

And with the subsiding of thinking and pondering,
by gaining inner tranquillity and oneness of mind,
enters and remains in the Second Jhana,
which without thinking and pondering (initial application and sustained application),
born of concentration, filled with delight and joy.

And with the fading away of delight,
remaining imperturable,
mindful and clearly aware,
he experiences in himself the joy of which the Noble Ones say:
“Happy is he who dwells with equanimity and mindfulness”,
he enters the Third Jhana.

And, having given up pleasure and pain, and
with the disappearance of former gladness and sadness,
he enters and remains in the Fourth Jhana,
which is beyond pleasure and pain,
and purified by equanimity and mindfulness.
This is called Right Concentration.

And that, monks, is called the Way of Practice Leading to the Cessation of Suffering.

(Insight)

“So he abides contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects internally,
contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects externally,
contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects both internally and externally.

He abides contemplating arising phenomena in the mind-objects,
He abides contemplating vanishing phenomena in the mind-objects
He abides contemplating both arising and vanishing phenomena in the mind-objects

Or else, mindfulness that “there are mind-objects” present
just to the extent necessary for the knowledge and awareness.
And he abides detached, not grasping at anything in the world.
And that, monks, is how a monk abides contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects
in respect of the Four Noble Truths.”

(Conclusion)

22. “Whoever, monks, should practise these four foundations of mindfulness
for just seven years may expect one of two results:
either Arahantship in this life or,
if there should be some substrate left, the state of a Non-Returner.”

Let alone seven years – whoever should practise them
for just six years … ,
five years … ,
four years … ,
three years … ,
two years …,
one year may expect one of the two results … ;

Let alone one year – whoever should practise them
for just seven months … ,
six months … ,
five months … ,
four months … ,
three months … ,
two months …,
one month … ,
half a month may expect one of the two results …;

Let alone half a month –
whoever should practise four foundations of mindfulness
for just one week may expect one of the two results:
either Arahantship in this life or,
if there should be some substrate left, the state of a Non-Returner.

“It was said : There is, monks, this one way

  • to the purification of beings,
  • for the overcoming of sorrow and distress,
  • for the disappearance of pain and sadness,
  • for the gaining of the right path,
  • for the realisation of Nibbana :-

that is to say the four foundations of mindfulness,
and it is for this reason that was to be said.”

Thus the Lord spoke, and the monks rejoiced and were delighted at his words.

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